For any operating system to function correctly there must to be a file structure in place by which the operating system and programs abide by. For example when installing programs it is helpful that the programs are located in the same directory and configuration files are located in a configuration directory.
The raspberry pi file system looks like this. Version may differ slightly depending on your distribution.
This is the top or root of the file system.
The boot directory contains information related to the booting process.
The dev directory contains device information including hard drives, serial ports etc.
The sys directory contains special files required by the operating systems.
The proc directory is a virtual directory containing a list of running programs known as processes.
Configuration files and located here along with user logins and encrypted passwords.
The home directory contains user data. When a user is created they will have a directory created here which will be the same as their user name. For example, if a user has been created called bob then under the home directory will be a folder labelled bob.
This is the home directory for the root user also known as super user.
This folder is used for files that change their size such as system and log files.
This is the temporary directory.
Executable files that are used for system maintenance are in this directory .
Executable files exist here that are related to operating system files.
This contains programs that are used for user installed programs.
This contains files that have been installed locally.
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